**A fully updated textbook on linear systems theory**

Linear systems theory is the cornerstone of control theory and a well-established discipline that focuses on linear differential equations from the perspective of control and estimation. This updated second edition of *Linear Systems Theory* covers the subject's key topics in a unique lecture-style format, making the book easy to use for instructors and students. João Hespanha looks at system representation, stability, controllability and state feedback, observability and state estimation, and realization theory. He provides the background for advanced modern control design techniques and feedback linearization and examines advanced foundational topics, such as multivariable poles and zeros and LQG/LQR.

The textbook presents only the most essential mathematical derivations and places comments, discussion, and terminology in sidebars so that readers can follow the core material easily and without distraction. Annotated proofs with sidebars explain the techniques of proof construction, including contradiction, contraposition, cycles of implications to prove equivalence, and the difference between necessity and sufficiency. Annotated theoretical developments also use sidebars to discuss relevant commands available in MATLAB, allowing students to understand these tools. This second edition contains a large number of new practice exercises with solutions. Based on typical problems, these exercises guide students to succinct and precise answers, helping to clarify issues and consolidate knowledge. The book's balanced chapters can each be covered in approximately two hours of lecture time, simplifying course planning and student review.

- Easy-to-use textbook in unique lecture-style format
- Sidebars explain topics in further detail
- Annotated proofs and discussions of MATLAB commands
- Balanced chapters can each be taught in two hours of course lecture
- New practice exercises with solutions included

**A remarkable look at how the growth, technology, and politics of high-frequency trading have altered global financial markets**

In today’s financial markets, trading floors on which brokers buy and sell shares face-to-face have increasingly been replaced by lightning-fast electronic systems that use algorithms to execute astounding volumes of transactions. *Trading at the Speed of Light *tells the story of this epic transformation. Donald MacKenzie shows how in the 1990s, in what were then the disreputable margins of the US financial system, a new approach to trading—automated high-frequency trading or HFT—began and then spread throughout the world. HFT has brought new efficiency to global trading, but has also created an unrelenting race for speed, leading to a systematic, subterranean battle among HFT algorithms.

In HFT, time is measured in nanoseconds (billionths of a second), and in a nanosecond the fastest possible signal—light in a vacuum—can travel only thirty centimeters, or roughly a foot. That makes HFT exquisitely sensitive to the length and transmission capacity of the cables connecting computer servers to the exchanges’ systems and to the location of the microwave towers that carry signals between computer datacenters. Drawing from more than 300 interviews with high-frequency traders, the people who supply them with technological and communication capabilities, exchange staff, regulators, and many others, MacKenzie reveals the extraordinary efforts expended to speed up every aspect of trading. He looks at how in some markets big banks have fought off the challenge from HFT firms, and how exchanges sometimes engineer technical systems to favor certain types of algorithms over others.

Focusing on the material, political, and economic characteristics of high-frequency trading, *Trading at the Speed of Light *offers a unique glimpse into its influence on global finance and where it could lead us in the future.

**The essential lifesaver for students who want to master probability**

For students learning probability, its numerous applications, techniques, and methods can seem intimidating and overwhelming. That's where *The Probability Lifesaver* steps in. Designed to serve as a complete stand-alone introduction to the subject or as a supplement for a course, this accessible and user-friendly study guide helps students comfortably navigate probability's terrain and achieve positive results.

*The Probability Lifesaver* is based on a successful course that Steven Miller has taught at Brown University, Mount Holyoke College, and Williams College. With a relaxed and informal style, Miller presents the math with thorough reviews of prerequisite materials, worked-out problems of varying difficulty, and proofs. He explores a topic first to build intuition, and only after that does he dive into technical details. Coverage of topics is comprehensive, and materials are repeated for reinforcement—both in the guide and on the book's website. An appendix goes over proof techniques, and video lectures of the course are available online. Students using this book should have some familiarity with algebra and precalculus.

*The Probability Lifesaver* not only enables students to survive probability but also to achieve mastery of the subject for use in future courses.

- A helpful introduction to probability or a perfect supplement for a course
- Numerous worked-out examples
- Lectures based on the chapters are available free online
- Intuition of problems emphasized first, then technical proofs given
- Appendixes review proof techniques
- Relaxed, conversational approach

*Topics in Mathematical Modeling* is an introductory textbook on mathematical modeling.

The book teaches how simple mathematics can help formulate and solve real problems of current research interest in a wide range of fields, including biology, ecology, computer science, geophysics, engineering, and the social sciences. Yet the prerequisites are minimal: calculus and elementary differential equations. Among the many topics addressed are HIV; plant phyllotaxis; global warming; the World Wide Web; plant and animal vascular networks; social networks; chaos and fractals; marriage and divorce; and El Niño. Traditional modeling topics such as predator-prey interaction, harvesting, and wars of attrition are also included. Most chapters begin with the history of a problem, follow with a demonstration of how it can be modeled using various mathematical tools, and close with a discussion of its remaining unsolved aspects.

Designed for a one-semester course, the book progresses from problems that can be solved with relatively simple mathematics to ones that require more sophisticated methods. The math techniques are taught as needed to solve the problem being addressed, and each chapter is designed to be largely independent to give teachers flexibility.

The book, which can be used as an overview and introduction to applied mathematics, is particularly suitable for sophomore, junior, and senior students in math, science, and engineering.

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**The classic case for why government must support science—with a new essay by physicist and former congressman Rush Holt on what democracy needs from science today**

*Science, the Endless Frontier* is recognized as the landmark argument for the essential role of science in society and government’s responsibility to support scientific endeavors. First issued when Vannevar Bush was the director of the US Office of Scientific Research and Development during the Second World War, this classic remains vital in making the case that scientific progress is necessary to a nation’s health, security, and prosperity. Bush’s vision set the course for US science policy for more than half a century, building the world’s most productive scientific enterprise. Today, amid a changing funding landscape and challenges to science’s very credibility, *Science, the Endless Frontier* resonates as a powerful reminder that scientific progress and public well-being alike depend on the successful symbiosis between science and government.

This timely new edition presents this iconic text alongside a new companion essay from scientist and former congressman Rush Holt, who offers a brief introduction and consideration of what society needs most from science now. Reflecting on the report’s legacy and relevance along with its limitations, Holt contends that the public’s ability to cope with today’s issues—such as public health, the changing climate and environment, and challenging technologies in modern society—requires a more capacious understanding of what science can contribute. Holt considers how scientists should think of their obligation to society and what the public should demand from science, and he calls for a renewed understanding of science’s value for democracy and society at large.

A touchstone for concerned citizens, scientists, and policymakers, *Science, the Endless Frontier* endures as a passionate articulation of the power and potential of science.

**The ideal introductory textbook to the politics of the policymaking process**

This textbook uses modern political economy to introduce students of political science, government, economics, and public policy to the politics of the policymaking process. The book's distinct political economy approach has two virtues. By developing general principles for thinking about policymaking, it can be applied across a range of issue areas. It also unifies the policy curriculum, offering coherence to standard methods for teaching economics and statistics, and drawing connections between fields.

The book begins by exploring the normative foundations of policymaking—political theory, social choice theory, and the Paretian and utilitarian underpinnings of policy analysis. It then introduces game theoretic models of social dilemmas—externalities, coordination problems, and commitment problems—that create opportunities for policy to improve social welfare. Finally, it shows how the political process creates technological and incentive constraints on government that shape policy outcomes. Throughout, concepts and models are illustrated and reinforced with discussions of empirical evidence and case studies.

This textbook is essential for all students of public policy and for anyone interested in the most current methods influencing policymaking today.

- Comprehensive approach to politics and policy suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students
- Models unify policy curriculum through methodological coherence
- Exercises at the end of every chapter
- Self-contained appendices cover necessary game theory
- Extensive discussion of cases and applications

David M. Kreps has developed a text in microeconomics that is both challenging and "user-friendly." The work is designed for the first-year graduate microeconomic theory course and is accessible to advanced undergraduates as well. Placing unusual emphasis on modern noncooperative game theory, it provides the student and instructor with a unified treatment of modern microeconomic theory--one that stresses the behavior of the individual actor (consumer or firm) in various institutional settings. The author has taken special pains to explore the fundamental assumptions of the theories and techniques studied, pointing out both strengths and weaknesses.

The book begins with an exposition of the standard models of choice and the market, with extra attention paid to choice under uncertainty and dynamic choice. General and partial equilibrium approaches are blended, so that the student sees these approaches as points along a continuum. The work then turns to more modern developments. Readers are introduced to noncooperative game theory and shown how to model games and determine solution concepts. Models with incomplete information, the folk theorem and reputation, and bilateral bargaining are covered in depth. Information economics is explored next. A closing discussion concerns firms as organizations and gives readers a taste of transaction-cost economics.

This book introduces one of the most powerful tools of modern economics to a wide audience: those who will later construct or consume game-theoretic models. Robert Gibbons addresses scholars in applied fields within economics who want a serious and thorough discussion of game theory but who may have found other works overly abstract. Gibbons emphasizes the economic applications of the theory at least as much as the pure theory itself; formal arguments about abstract games play a minor role. The applications illustrate the process of model building--of translating an informal description of a multi-person decision situation into a formal game-theoretic problem to be analyzed. Also, the variety of applications shows that similar issues arise in different areas of economics, and that the same game-theoretic tools can be applied in each setting. In order to emphasize the broad potential scope of the theory, conventional applications from industrial organization have been largely replaced by applications from labor, macro, and other applied fields in economics. The book covers four classes of games, and four corresponding notions of equilibrium: static games of complete information and Nash equilibrium, dynamic games of complete information and subgame-perfect Nash equilibrium, static games of incomplete information and Bayesian Nash equilibrium, and dynamic games of incomplete information and perfect Bayesian equilibrium.

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**An incisive history of the changing relationship between democracy and capitalism**

The twentieth century witnessed the triumph of democratic capitalism in the industrialized West, with widespread popular support for both free markets and representative elections. Today, that political consensus appears to be breaking down, disrupted by polarization and income inequality, widespread dissatisfaction with democratic institutions, and insurgent populism. Tracing the history of democratic capitalism over the past two centuries, Carles Boix explains how we got here—and where we could be headed.

Boix looks at three defining stages of capitalism, each originating in a distinct time and place with its unique political challenges, structure of production and employment, and relationship with democracy. He begins in nineteenth-century Manchester, where factory owners employed unskilled laborers at low wages, generating rampant inequality and a restrictive electoral franchise. He then moves to Detroit in the early 1900s, where the invention of the modern assembly line shifted labor demand to skilled blue-collar workers. Boix shows how growing wages, declining inequality, and an expanding middle class enabled democratic capitalism to flourish. Today, however, the information revolution that began in Silicon Valley in the 1970s is benefitting the highly educated at the expense of the traditional working class, jobs are going offshore, and inequality has risen sharply, making many wonder whether democracy and capitalism are still compatible.

Essential reading for these uncertain times, *Democratic Capitalism at the Crossroads* proposes sensible policy solutions that can help harness the unruly forces of capitalism to preserve democracy and meet the challenges that lie ahead.

Economic sociology is a rapidly expanding field, applying sociology's core insight--that individuals behave according to scripts that are tied to social roles--to economic behavior. It places *homo economicus* (that tried-and-true fictive actor who is completely rational, acts only out of self-interest, and has perfect information) in context. In this way, it places a construct into a framework that more closely approximates the world in which we live. But, as an academic field, economic sociology has lost focus. *The New Economic Sociology* remedies this.

The book comprises twenty of the most representative and widely read articles in the field's history--its classics--and organizes them according to four themes at the heart of sociology: institutions, networks, power, and cognition. Dobbin's substantial and engagingly written introduction (including his rich comparison of Yanomamo chest-beaters and Wall Street bond-traders) sets a clear framework for what follows. Gathering force throughout is Dobbin's argument that economic practices emerge through distinctly social processes, in which social networks and power resources play roles in the social construction of certain behaviors as rational or optimal. Not only does Dobbin provide a consummate introduction to the field and its history to students approaching the subject for the first time, but he also establishes a schema for interpreting the field based on an understanding of what economic sociology aims to achieve.

**A landmark comparative history of Europe and China that examines why the Industrial Revolution emerged in the West**

*The Great Divergence* sheds light on one of the great questions of history: Why did sustained industrial growth begin in Northwest Europe? Historian Kenneth Pomeranz shows that as recently as 1750, life expectancy, consumption, and product and factor markets were comparable in Europe and East Asia. Moreover, key regions in China and Japan were no worse off ecologically than those in Western Europe, with each region facing corresponding shortages of land-intensive products. Pomeranz’s comparative lens reveals the two critical factors resulting in Europe's nineteenth-century divergence—the fortunate location of coal and access to trade with the New World. As East Asia’s economy stagnated, Europe narrowly escaped the same fate largely due to favorable resource stocks from underground and overseas.

This Princeton Classics edition includes a preface from the author and makes a powerful historical work available to new readers.

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**The essential "lifesaver" that every student of real analysis needs**

Real analysis is difficult. For most students, in addition to learning new material about real numbers, topology, and sequences, they are also learning to read and write rigorous proofs for the first time. *The Real Analysis Lifesaver* is an innovative guide that helps students through their first real analysis course while giving them the solid foundation they need for further study in proof-based math.

Rather than presenting polished proofs with no explanation of how they were devised, *The Real Analysis Lifesaver* takes a two-step approach, first showing students how to work backwards to solve the crux of the problem, then showing them how to write it up formally. It takes the time to provide plenty of examples as well as guided "fill in the blanks" exercises to solidify understanding.

Newcomers to real analysis can feel like they are drowning in new symbols, concepts, and an entirely new way of thinking about math. Inspired by the popular *Calculus Lifesaver*, this book is refreshingly straightforward and full of clear explanations, pictures, and humor. It is the lifesaver that every drowning student needs.

- The essential “lifesaver” companion for any course in real analysis
- Clear, humorous, and easy-to-read style
- Teaches students not just what the proofs are, but how to do them—in more than 40 worked-out examples
- Every new definition is accompanied by examples and important clarifications
- Features more than 20 “fill in the blanks” exercises to help internalize proof techniques
- Tried and tested in the classroom

After every major earthquake, the Earth rings like a bell for several days. These free oscillations of the Earth and the related propagating body and surface waves are routinely detected at broad-band seismographic stations around the world. In this book, F. A. Dahlen and Jeroen Tromp present an advanced theoretical treatment of global seismology, describing the normal-mode, body-wave, and surface-wave methods employed in the determination of the Earth's three-dimensional internal structure and the source mechanisms of earthquakes. The authors provide a survey of both the history of global seismological research and the major theoretical and observational advances made in the past decade.

The book is divided into three parts. In the first, "Foundations," Dahlen and Tromp give an extensive introduction to continuum mechanics and discuss the representation of seismic sources and the free oscillations of a completely general Earth model. The resulting theory should provide the basis for future scientific discussions of the elastic-gravitational deformation of the Earth. The second part, "The Spherical Earth," is devoted to the free oscillations of a spherically symmetric Earth. In the third part, "The Aspherical Earth," the authors discuss methods of dealing with the Earth's three-dimensional heterogeneity. The book is concerned primarily with the forward problem of global seismology--detailing how synthetic seismograms and spectra may be calculated and interpreted.

As a long-needed unification of theories in global seismology, the book will be important to graduate students and to professional seismologists, geodynamicists, and geomagnetists, as well as to astronomers who study the free oscillations of the Sun and other stars.

Physical scientists are problem solvers. They are comfortable "doing" science: they find problems, solve them, and explain their solutions. Roger Newton believes that his fellow physicists might be too comfortable with their roles as solvers of problems. He argues that physicists should spend more time thinking about physics. If they did, he believes, they would become even more skilled at solving problems and "doing" science. As Newton points out in this thought-provoking book, problem solving is always influenced by the theoretical assumptions of the problem solver. Too often, though, he believes, physicists haven't subjected their assumptions to thorough scrutiny. Newton's goal is to provide a framework within which the fundamental theories of modern physics can be explored, interpreted, and understood.

"Surely physics is more than a collection of experimental results, assembled to satisfy the curiosity of appreciative experts," Newton writes. Physics, according to Newton, has moved beyond the describing and naming of curious phenomena, which is the goal of some other branches of science. Physicists have spent a great part of the twentieth century searching for explanations of experimental findings. Newton agrees that experimental facts are vital to the study of physics, but only because they lead to the development of a theory that can explain them. Facts, he argues, should undergird theory.

Newton's explanatory sweep is both broad and deep. He covers such topics as quantum mechanics, classical mechanics, field theory, thermodynamics, the role of mathematics in physics, and the concepts of probability and causality. For Newton the fundamental entity in quantum theory is the field, from which physicists can explain the particle-like and wave-like properties that are observed in experiments. He grounds his explanations in the quantum field.

Although this is not designed as a stand-alone textbook, it is essential reading for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, professors, and researchers. This is a clear, concise, up-to-date book about the concepts and theories that underlie the study of contemporary physics. Readers will find that they will become better-informed physicists and, therefore, better thinkers and problem solvers too.

**The groundbreaking classic that explores how women can and should negotiate for parity in their workplaces, homes, and beyond**

When Linda Babcock wanted to know why male graduate students were teaching their own courses while female students were always assigned as assistants, her dean said: "More men ask. The women just don't ask." Drawing on psychology, sociology, economics, and organizational behavior as well as dozens of interviews with men and women in different fields and at all stages in their careers, *Women Don't Ask* explores how our institutions, child-rearing practices, and implicit assumptions discourage women from asking for the opportunities and resources that they have earned and deserve—perpetuating inequalities that are fundamentally unfair and economically unsound. *Women Don't Ask* tells women how to ask, and why they should.

A cornerstone of applied probability, Markov chains can be used to help model how plants grow, chemicals react, and atoms diffuse--and applications are increasingly being found in such areas as engineering, computer science, economics, and education. To apply the techniques to real problems, however, it is necessary to understand how Markov chains can be solved numerically. In this book, the first to offer a systematic and detailed treatment of the numerical solution of Markov chains, William Stewart provides scientists on many levels with the power to put this theory to use in the actual world, where it has applications in areas as diverse as engineering, economics, and education. His efforts make for essential reading in a rapidly growing field.

Here Stewart explores all aspects of numerically computing solutions of Markov chains, especially when the state is huge. He provides extensive background to both discrete-time and continuous-time Markov chains and examines many different numerical computing methods--direct, single-and multi-vector iterative, and projection methods. More specifically, he considers recursive methods often used when the structure of the Markov chain is upper Hessenberg, iterative aggregation/disaggregation methods that are particularly appropriate when it is NCD (nearly completely decomposable), and reduced schemes for cases in which the chain is periodic. There are chapters on methods for computing transient solutions, on stochastic automata networks, and, finally, on currently available software. Throughout Stewart draws on numerous examples and comparisons among the methods he so thoroughly explains.

This book brings together a number of lectures given between 1993 and 1999 as part of a special series hosted by the Federal University of Pernambuco, in which internationally established researchers came to Recife, Brazil, to lecture on classical or celestial mechanics. Because of the high quality of the results and the general interest in the lecturers' topics, the editors have assembled nine of the lectures here in order to make them available to mathematicians and students around the world. The material presented includes a good balance of pure and applied research and of complete and incomplete results. Bringing together material that is otherwise quite scattered in the literature and including some important new results, it will serve graduate students and researchers interested in Hamiltonian dynamics and celestial mechanics.

The contributors are Dieter Schmidt, Ernesto Pérez-Chavela, Mark Levi, Plácido Táboas and Jack Hale, Jair Koiller et al., Hildeberto Cabral, Florin Diacu, and Alain Albouy. The topics covered include central configurations and relative equilibria for the *N*-body problem, singularities of the *N*-body problem, the two-body problem, normal forms of Hamiltonian systems and stability of equilibria, applications to celestial mechanics of Poincaré's compactification, the motion of the moon, geometrical methods in mechanics, momentum maps and geometric phases, holonomy for gyrostats, microswimming, and bifurcation from families of periodic solutions.

Earthquakes, a plucked string, ocean waves crashing on the beach, the sound waves that allow us to recognize known voices. Waves are everywhere, and the propagation and classical properties of these apparently disparate phenomena can be described by the same mathematical methods: variational calculus, characteristics theory, and caustics. Taking a medium-by-medium approach, Julian Davis explains the mathematics needed to understand wave propagation in inviscid and viscous fluids, elastic solids, viscoelastic solids, and thermoelastic media, including hyperbolic partial differential equations and characteristics theory, which makes possible geometric solutions to nonlinear wave problems. The result is a clear and unified treatment of wave propagation that makes a diverse body of mathematics accessible to engineers, physicists, and applied mathematicians engaged in research on elasticity, aerodynamics, and fluid mechanics.

This book will particularly appeal to those working across specializations and those who seek the truly interdisciplinary understanding necessary to fully grasp waves and their behavior. By proceeding from concrete phenomena (e.g., the Doppler effect, the motion of sinusoidal waves, energy dissipation in viscous fluids, thermal stress) rather than abstract mathematical principles, Davis also creates a one-stop reference that will be prized by students of continuum mechanics and by mathematicians needing information on the physics of waves.

**An advanced treatment of surgery theory for graduate students and researchers**

Surgery theory, a subfield of geometric topology, is the study of the classifications of manifolds. *A Course on Surgery Theory* offers a modern look at this important mathematical discipline and some of its applications. In this book, Stanley Chang and Shmuel Weinberger explain some of the triumphs of surgery theory during the past three decades, from both an algebraic and geometric point of view. They also provide an extensive treatment of basic ideas, main theorems, active applications, and recent literature. The authors methodically cover all aspects of surgery theory, connecting it to other relevant areas of mathematics, including geometry, homotopy theory, analysis, and algebra. Later chapters are self-contained, so readers can study them directly based on topic interest. Of significant use to high-dimensional topologists and researchers in noncommutative geometry and algebraic K-theory, *A Course on Surgery Theory* serves as an important resource for the mathematics community.

**A comprehensive analysis of European craft guilds through eight centuries of economic history**

Guilds ruled many crafts and trades from the Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution, and have always attracted debate and controversy. They were sometimes viewed as efficient institutions that guaranteed quality and skills. But they also excluded competitors, manipulated markets, and blocked innovations. Did the benefits of guilds outweigh their costs? Analyzing thousands of guilds that dominated European economies from 1000 to 1880, *The European Guilds* uses vivid examples and clear economic reasoning to answer that question.

Sheilagh Ogilvie’s book features the voices of honourable guild masters, underpaid journeymen, exploited apprentices, shady officials, and outraged customers, and follows the stories of the “vile encroachers”—women, migrants, Jews, gypsies, bastards, and many others—desperate to work but hunted down by the guilds as illicit competitors. She investigates the benefits of guilds but also shines a light on their dark side. Guilds sometimes provided important services, but they also manipulated markets to profit their members. They regulated quality but prevented poor consumers from buying goods cheaply. They fostered work skills but denied apprenticeships to outsiders. They transmitted useful techniques but blocked innovations that posed a threat. Guilds existed widely not because they corrected market failures or served the common good but because they benefited two powerful groups—guild members and political elites.

Exploring guilds’ inner workings across eight centuries, *The European Guilds* shows how privileged institutions and exclusive networks shape the wider economy—for good or ill.